Favorite Quotes

"Once you walk into a courtroom, you've already lost. The best way to win is to avoid it at all costs, because the justice system is anything but" Sydney Carton, Attorney. "There is no one in the criminal justice system who believes that system works well. Or if they are, they are for courts that are an embarrassment to the ideals of justice. The law of real people doesn't work" Lawrence Lessig, Harvard Law Professor.

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Bluetooth spying beacons uncovered in LA & Chicago

Devices identical to those secretly planted in New York City phone booths have been installed in public spaces in Los Angeles and Chicago.
The Bluetooth devices known as “beacons” were installed in bus benches in Los Angeles and train stations in Chicago. Additional information obtained suggests that the devices were also installed in San Francisco, though BuzzFeed News was unable to independently confirm that allegation.
In Los Angeles, beacons have been installed in “less than 5%” of the city’s more than 5,000 bus benches, according to Randall Smith, CEO of Martin Outdoor Advertising. (Five percent of 5,000 would be 250 benches.) Martin announced the program publicly for the first time via press release  after BuzzFeed News contacted the company regarding beacons.
Read: They were forced to admit they're profiting while illegally spying on citizens, can anyone say license plate readers, red-light camera etc.

The beacons are manufactured by Gimbal Inc., the San Diego company that made the 500 beacons that were removed from New York City phone booths earlier this month, after a BuzzFeed News investigation revealed their existence.
Taken together, the programs reveal a broad initiative by Gimbal to quietly partner with outdoor advertising companies in major American cities. And they clarify the extent to which technology companies, cities, and brands have begun experimenting with new forms of commercial persuasion, with scant public notice.
Beacons emit simple, self-identifying signals. Although beacons do not collect any information themselves, they play a central role in Gimbal’s phone-tracking technology. Gimbal requires smartphone apps that use its software to get users’ “opt-in” permission before collecting data and sending beacon-triggered notifications. When a Gimbal-enabled, customer-approved app “sees” a Gimbal beacon, the phone sends information about the encounter — including the phone’s “unique identifier”, its location, and the time of day — to Gimbal’s servers.
The Tribeca Film Festival app used the phone booth beacons earlier this year to send festivalgoers notifications about nearby happenings. ShopAdvisor, a mobile shopping app, touted a “pilot program” collaboration with Qualcomm in Manhattan in a solicitation to brands: “There are 500 beacons outdoor beacons placed in Manhattan across all key shopping districts. The ShopAdvisor platform is integrated to work with these beacons.” And a promotional image now deleted from Gimbal’s website includes what appears to be heat map of beacon-phone interactions in a wide swath of Manhattan:
From Gimbal's website:
Not All Beacons Are Created Equal, "It Should Read, Not All Surveillance Beacons Are Created Equal":
"Gimbal has the world's largest deployment of industry-leading Bluetooth Smart beacons. Our engineers are consistently resetting the standards by which all other beacons are judged and we are currently deploying our fifth-generation beacon hardware.
  • Bluetooth® Smart
  • Configurable over the air
  • Secure firmware upgradable over the air
  • Different form factors for different use cases with battery life up to 3 years*
  • Gimbal Manager is a state-of-the-art way of managing all beacons in your network, even beacons not purchased from Gimbal

Venues: Changing the Game:
Understanding each fan's specific interests and precise location within your venue allows you to more effectively engage with them while they are in your stadium, arena, concert venue or theater. Each fan should have a personalized mobile experience created just for them. Gimbal will allow you to:
  • Send personalized greetings
  • Direct them to the shortest lines
  • Point out interesting facts or history
  • Provide special access for sponsors
  • Deliver games, contests or trivia to keep them engaged during the event
  • Expand engagement with your app before and after the event
  • Send geo-targeted and proximity notifications in real-time

Agencies & Advertisers: Break through the Mobile Clutter:
Mobile devices are increasingly proving to be the most effective and personalized marketing platform for driving sales. Gimbal can help you find new ways to leverage mobile's ability to:
  • Deliver timely content based on "actual location," rather than "inferred location"
  • Reduce "digital chatter" by filtering out spam, delivering content they care about when they want it
  • Increase the impact of mobile advertising
  • Provide new data points and tools for your analytics platform
  • Turn traditional marketing assets into digital experiences
Developers: Revolutionize Your Mobile App:
Gimbal provides developers with a suite of tools including beacon hardware, a SDK, a manager portal as well as APIs for both iOS and Android to help you enhance your mobile applications. Gimbal proximity beacons communicate over Bluetooth Smart and are built and configured to Apple's iBeacon specifications so you can:
  • Manage and connect beacons to your app
  • Incorporate precise user location data and deliver proximity notifications
  • Use our analytics to learn user trends and analyze foot traffic
  • Incorporate and manage an unlimited number of geofences and beacons
  • Enroll non-Gimbal beacons on the Gimbal Manager

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

DHS/COPS grants give police millions in taxpayer dollars to pay for overtime

COPS developed the Homeland Security Overtime Program (HSOP) to increase the amount of overtime funding law available to support community policing and homeland security efforts. As state, local, and tribal law enforcement embrace the challenges of securing our homeland, this is now

more important than ever. HSOP supported programs that increased community safety  and security and reduced public fear. HSOP grants supplemented the selected agencies’ state- or locally-funded officer overtime budgets, increasing the amount of funding available for these critical functions. 

Law enforcement agencies could apply for funding amounts based on the size of the population they served or the size of their budgeted sworn strength at the time of application, according to the table below. 

Agencies serving populations: Or budgeted sworn force:  Could apply for a federal share of up to:

less than 24,999                                 1-49                                               $25,000

from 25,000 to 49,999                       50-99                                              $50,000

from 50,000 to 99,999                       100-199                                          $100,000

from 100,000 to 249,999                   200-499                                          $250,000

from 250,000 to 499,999                   500-999                                          $500,000

from 500,000 to 999,999                   1,000-1,999                                    $1,000,000

more than 1,000,000 above               2,000                                               $3,000,000


Massachusetts to use $2.1 million in taxpayer dollars to settle state trooper overtime suit:

The Patrick administration has agreed to pay $21.5 million to nearly 2,000 current and retired state troopers, and grant some of them extra time off, to settle a legal claim by the troopers who said they were shortchanged when they worked overtime from 2001 through 2013.

During those years, troopers who worked extra hours received, in some cases, compensatory time at a rate of one hour off for every hour of overtime worked.

The union that represents the troopers filed a grievance in 2005 saying they should receive 1.5 hours in compensatory time for every hour of overtime worked, based on federal labor law that mandates a higher rate of pay after employees work 40 hours in a one-week period.

“It was a long-standing practice that we stopped, as a matter of good fiscal management and public safety,” Colonel Timothy P. Alben, superintendent of the State Police, said in an interview. “This clearly is a lot of money and it’s taxpayers’ dollars,” he said. “I get that.”

Under the terms of an eight-page settlement, signed on Aug. 7, troopers are eligible to receive additional paid time off for work they performed before the date the grievance was filed and extra pay for work after that date.

The settlement provides an average of about two weeks of additional paid time off to 304 troopers included in the pregrievance period. It also provides some very large pay days for those who were denied the federal overtime rate after the grievance was filed.

The top five State Police troopers will receive $154,646, $121,052, $117,533, $114,614, and $112,149, State Police said. The average payout to approximately 1,800 recipients is $11,600, the state said.

The union representing the troopers declined comment. The state also agreed to pay the union’s $350,000 in legal expenses in the case, according to the settlement.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Police State Amerika: DHS/TSA on America's campuses

Why is the NSA, DHS, TSA and numerous spying agencies in our universities? Why are govt. spies in demand on college campuses?
Former govt. officials find work at colleges across the country.
A smartly dressed man named Joe whose parents don't know what he does for a living riveted a University of Maryland class recently with tales about U.S. government secrets. Joe, the guest lecturer in a course called "Legal Issues in Managing Information," works for the CIA. So does the course's instructor, whose full name can be published.
At George Washington University in Washington, D.C., another CIA employee teaches a course on competitive intelligence in business. And the same thing is happening at nearby Georgetown University.
Intelligence is flourishing as a new academic discipline at hundreds of colleges across the country. Only a small fraction of the instructors are CIA employees, but many others have worked in government intelligence or diplomacy of some kind and have fashioned courses based on that service.
Their skills mesh perfectly with the business world's increased emphasis on information management and how distinguishing good information from bad information affects the bottom line. Indeed, the typical student in an intelligence course is not a wannabe spy but an aspiring business executive, systems analyst or librarian.
Ann Prentice, dean of the University of Maryland's College of Library and Information Systems, said the school sought out Lee Strickland, the CIA official teaching the graduate course on legal issues, for the practical experience he could bring to information management.
"It's our core business," she said. "We thought Lee could bring another perspective that would be valuable."
The NSA runs it's 'IA Mission' in colleges across the country.
The Dept. of Defense(DoD) runs an 'Information Assurance Scholarship Program' and it's disturbing tag line reads:
"To continue to provide the growing number of trained personnel needed, DoD is working with universities across the country, known as National Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance (run by the NSA), often referred to as CAEs, to develop and expand IA–related curricula and to offer programs of study for future IA professionals."
The U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence created an “Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence” (or IC Center) for students.
The idea for IC Centers came about in the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks, when both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives held hearings about how the country’s spy agencies missed clues that might have foiled the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks. As part of the response, Congress passed a sweeping law called the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (S 2845).
In the House Intelligence Committee hearings prior to the bill’s passage, California representative Jane Harman (Democrat from California and chair of the House Intelligence Committee) put it bluntly: “We can no longer expect an Intelligence Community that is mostly male and mostly white to be able to monitor and infiltrate suspicious organizations or terrorist groups. We need spies that look like their targets, CIA officers who speak the dialects that terrorists use, and FBI agents who can speak to Muslim women that might be intimidated by men”.
For this reason, the IC Center program wasn’t aimed at students attending Harvard, Yale, Princeton, or other Ivy League schools or internationally renowned universities like Stanford or Berkeley or the University of Chicago. The program’s architects consciously directed it at schools where minority students are the majority—predominantly African American and Latino universities, which are chronically underfunded. Perhaps this reflects the shape of “multiculturalism” in a militarized society: the government’s spy agencies and armed forces recruit minority students from low-income regions in order to “monitor and infiltrate” people (“targets”) that look and speak like them.
Since 2005, Trinity’s IC Center has had its funding renewed, and “Spy Camp” has continued every summer since. In fact, beginning in 2006, the director of National Intelligence dramatically expanded the IC Center program (of which the “Spy Camp” is only one part), and today there are a total of twenty-one such centers throughout the country. These are located at California State University, San Bernardino; Carnegie-Mellon University; Clemson University; Clark Atlanta University; Florida A&M University; Florida International University; Howard University; Miles College (Alabama); Norfolk State University (Virginia); North Carolina A&T University; Pennsylvania State University; Tennessee State University; Trinity University; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Nebraska; University of New Mexico; University of North Carolina, Wilmington; University of Texas, El Paso; University of Texas, Pan American; University of Washington; Virginia Tech; and Wayne State University (Michigan). Significantly, most of these universities have large numbers of minority students, which corresponds with the original objectives of the IC Center program’s architects.
Tens of millions of dollars have been appropriated for the programs, with some centers receiving individual grants of up to $750,000. According to the Washington Post, the DNI planned to expand the program to twenty universities by the year 2015. Apparently, it has met this goal far ahead of schedule. (Since 2008, the DNI has included universities with significantly higher percentages of “white” students. It appears that the DNI quickly exhausted its supply of predominantly Hispanic and African American universities.)
And for students who want a taste of spying, the NSA offers a summer intern program.
The NSA uses a despicable recruiting cartoon website aimed at kids, called "America's Crytpo Kids."

Some students have openly voiced there concerns over this blatant use of making spying on Americans without a warrant fun.
Click here & here to read more.
Need more proof the American police state has permeated our educational system? Former DHS chief Janet Napolitano is president of the University of California.
DHS also offers a summer intern program called the 'National HS - STEM Summer Program'. Click here to find out more about internships with Big Brother.
Columbia College proudly supports DHS's internship spying program.
DHS also offers a 'Secretary’s Honors Program'(SHP) where students can learn to spy on Americans and go on to find jobs with them or the TSA, CIA, FBI and Secret Service. 
Former TSA chief John Pistole said he will leave office at the end of the year and expects to accept a position in Anderson University.
Anderson University posted a statement on its website that said a search committee will propose to the school's board of trustees that Pistole be the school's next president. The university is located in Anderson, Indiana, Pistole's hometown.

Pistole received a bachelor's degree in 1978 from the nearly 100-year-old university, which was founded by the Church of God, according to the school's statement.
Is this the future of education?
How long before DHS & the TSA require:
Laptops, belts, shoes and liquids must be removed from backpacks for screening before entering the classroom.
No backpacks may be left unattended on campuses.  
Full body scans are required to enter the library.
Students can skip food lines and move through faster by signing up for Pre-Check.
Students should follow the 3-1-1 liquids rule for shower caddies with travel-sized shampoos.
Students must present proper identification before taking tests. 
Students must submit there biometrics(finger, retina scans) before being allowed on campus.
Bomb-sniffing dogs will roam campus hallways.
Federal air marshals will be embedded in campus classrooms.
College sports teams to change their uniforms to mirror the TSA's signature blue  colors or DHS's uniforms etc.

College stadiums to be re-named TSA Arena, DHS Stadium, NSA Hockey Arena, etc.
Even our high schools have become prime hunting grounds for Amerika's spying agencies:
In July 2005, a select group of fifteen- to nineteen-year-old high school students participated in a week-long summer program called “Spy Camp” in the Washington, DC, area. The program included a field trip to the CIA’s headquarters in Langley, Virginia, an “intelligence simulation” exercise, and a visit to the $35 million International Spy Museum.
The high school program was carried out by Trinity University of Washington, DC—a predominantly African American university with an overwhelmingly female student population.
According to the Office of the DNI, the goal of the IC Center program is to increase the pool of future applicants for careers in the CIA, the FBI, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and the dozen or so other organizations that make up the U.S. “intelligence community”—in less euphemistic terms, America’s spy agencies.
Lets not forget, back in 1973 the U.S. govt. hired 10 college students to infiltrate and spy on left-wing groups. In today's America our numerous spying agencies openly recruit and spy on everyone.

Monday, October 20, 2014

Secret Service/DHS attempted to use a fake warrant to enter home of Obama critic

TN - Nashville's police chief is raising stunning new allegations regarding the U.S. Secret Service, saying local agents once asked his officers to fake a warrant.
Even more disturbing, Chief Steve Anderson said he complained to top Secret Service officials in Washington, and they did not seem to care.
The  reason why Secret Service officials don't care about ignoring our rights is much more disturbing. DHS is running the Secret Service, DHS has a long history of targeting innocent Americans.
Click here,  here & here to read how DHS targeting of Obama critics is worse than you can imagine.
For more see the videos below: 
The allegations regarding the January 2013 incident are contained in a letter that Anderson sent to several members of the House Committee on Oversight. That's the congressional committee that has spearheaded the on-going investigation into the Secret Service. Secret Service Director Julia Pierson was recently forced to resign as a result of that scandal.
"There's already a lot of fodder to attack the Secret Service with, and this will be more," said Rep. Jim Cooper, D-Tennessee, who was among the committee members who received the letter.
In the Nashville case, a Secret Service agent made a frantic call for backup to Nashville police after he and another agent went to the home of a Nashville man, investigating threatening comments on Facebook about the President. The man who posted them had refused to let the agents into his house.
"He shoved the door in our face and went around the corner. Looks like, we're not sure if he ... possibly he had a gun in his hands," the agent told a 911 operator.
In a letter that he first sent to Secret Service headquarters, the Nashville police chief recounted what happened.
"The resident refused to come outside and shouted back, 'Show me your warrant,'" Anderson wrote.
So "one of the agents then asked a police sergeant to 'wave a piece of paper' in an apparent effort to dupe the resident into thinking that they indeed had a warrant."
Anderson demanded a meeting with bosses inside the Secret Service's Nashville office.
He recalled asking, "Do you think it is appropriate to wave a piece of paper in the air and tell him you have a warrant when you do not have a warrant?"
"Answer: 'I don't know. I'm not a lawyer.'"
The legal director for the American Civil Liberties Union of Tennessee, Thomas Castelli, called the incident an "absolutely appalling" violation of basic constitutional principles.
"If this is something that not all law enforcement -- and I'm talking about from the cop patrolling the streets in our smallest town in Tennessee all the way up to the Secret Service and the FBI -- if this is not something that they're taught, then that's a big problem," Castelli said.
Police said the resident had not actually committed a crime.
Police use the "Glomar response" to justify withholding documents:
NY - Many a reporter has been stymied by the "Glomar response," as it's known, since 1975, when it was first established as a permissible answer to a federal Freedom of Information Act request. (The backstory, as recounted in this Radiolab segment, involves a sunken Russian nuclear submarine, a Cold War pissing contest, and a company called "Global Marine" -- hence Glomar.)
The justification behind a Glomar response is that, in some cases, simply confirming the existence of certain records would be enough to undermine government interests. If a reporter asked the CIA for any records, say, about a secret CIA time machine project, even acknowledging that there are records fitting that description might be enough to jeopardize secrecy in meaningful ways. Such records would also be indisputably awesome.
The dread Glomar has always been a dodge available to the feds but not to local police, who have wide latitude to deny access to records but generally, under a state freedom-of-information law, have to give some sort of reason for withholding them -- thus acknowledging their existence.
A recent court ruling might bring the legal principle involved into New York State for the first time.
The case involves a Harlem-based imam, Talib Abdur-Rashid, who sued the city to find out whether he and his mosque had been under surveillance by the NYPD. There are strong suggestions that Abdur-Rashid, who has for years preached a politically charged brand of Islam, may have been a target of the department's "demographics unit," which embarked on broad-based surveillance of Muslim groups in the years after 9-11.
As the Associated Press first reported in a Pulitzer Prize-winning series in 2011, Muslim groups as well as Arab and South Asian immigrant communities were for years targeted in a potentially illegal dragnet, one that penetrated mosques and aggressively monitored organizations and individuals based, in some cases, on constitutionally protected speech. (The NYPD initially denied this all rather flatly, and only admitted later that the demographics unit did indeed exist at one time. It has since reportedly been disbanded.)
According to Enemies Within, a book on the demographics unit written by then-AP reporters Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman, Abdur-Rashid was one of 26 people placed on a "watch list" by the department in 2004. His "views on the wars in the Middle East" were what attracted the cops' attention, as well as his anti-Semitic remarks and other comments that were "distasteful," in the authors' characterization, but not illegal.
In 2012, Abdur-Rashid demanded all records related to any investigation of him by the NYPD. Briefs flew back and forth. In February 2013, the department asked a judge to allow them to offer a "Glomar response," rather than refusing to release the records under New York's version of the Freedom of Information Act, which would normally require them to admit, at least, that such records exist.
Their argument in this brief was that merely revealing whether or not the NYPD was spying,  could disclose sensitive information about the department's investigative techniques. The department's lawyers admitted that it was an "issue of first impression," and that they were asking the judge to reach beyond state court precedent, essentially deciding the issue based on federal legal doctrine, which would normally have no bearing on a case in state court.
Meanwhile police in DC are using the secretive 'Stingray' cell phone tracking tool.
Back in 2003, the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) in Washington, DC was awarded a $260,000 grant from DHS to purchase surveillance technology called Stingray — a contraption the size of a suitcase that simulates a cell phone tower and intercepts mobile phone calls and text messages.
The rationale behind the DHS grant to MPD and other law enforcement agencies was to help them secure new antiterrorism technology from private corporations. But the grant fell a little short, because the MPD couldn't come up with the extra several thousands dollars it needed to train officers how to use and maintain Stingray — so the device sat unused in an "Electronic Surveillance Unit equipment vault" at the department for more than five years.
The details of the MPD's use of Stingray have been shrouded in secrecy. Although there was suspicion the department was utilizing the technology, documentary evidence to support the notion never surfaced.
Click here & here to read more.
Charlotte police cellphone surveillance collects data from innocent people.
Click here to read more.
Five Virginia police agencies since 2012 are spying on private phones calls.
The database, which affects unknown numbers of people, contains phone records that at least five police agencies in southeast Virginia have been collecting since 2012 and sharing with one another with little oversight. Some of the data appears to have been obtained by police from telecoms using only a subpoena, rather than a court order or probable-cause warrant. Other information in the database comes from mobile phones seized from suspects during an arrest.
The five cities participating in the program, known as the Hampton Roads Telephone Analysis Sharing Network, are Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Chesapeake and Suffolk, according to the memorandum of understanding that established the database. The effort is being led in part by the Peninsula Narcotics Enforcement Task Force, which is responsible for a “telephone analysis room” in the city of Hampton, where the database is maintained.
Click here to read more:

Friday, October 17, 2014

COPS/DHS report claims 'Stop-And-Frisk' should be reviewed & refined for community policing

Supported by a DOJ/DHS grant, the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) report
COPS claims the report was assembled to help guide "law enforcement on how to conduct pedestrian stops in a manner that promotes crime control objectives while minimizing negative outcomes that can ultimately undermine police effectiveness."
The picture below, used by COPS or should I say DHS shows a black police officer searching a smiling black kid, while two white girls look on.
Nancy La Vigne of the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center explained that the volume was based on a roundtable discussion held in 2011, when "stop, question and frisk" was a widely used, and hotly disputed, practice under then-New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly, working for then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

New York Mayor Bill de Blasio campaiged against the practice, and the number of stop-and-frisk incidents has dropped dramatically under his police commissioner, William Bratton.

The Urban Institute report noted that stop-and-frisk can be done legally and can have an impact on crime, but "given the recent wave of protests, public backlash, court cases, and new laws attacking stop-and-frisk, this policing strategy is at a critical juncture."

The Urban Institute/DHS says 'stop-and-frisks' can be done legally! What a load of B.S. 'stop-and frisks' are illegal and in direct defiance of the 4th. Amendment.
The Urban Institute report said it is an open question whether the "widespread application of stop and frisk, which may target individuals based on the color of their skin and their presence on the street," is constitutional. (The de Blasio administration in New York City dropped an appeal of a federal judge's ruling that New York officers violated many citizens' rights as they practiced stop-and-frisk.)
The institute said that little research had been done on the impact of stop-and-frisk, but it is clear that the practice has "the potential for stop and frisk to influence attitudes toward the police in a negative manner." The report said that, "Individuals’ perceptions of the police may be particularly at risk in minority communities, which have a long history of tense relations with law enforcement."
Study links Stop-And-Frisk to trauma & anxiety In young men:
A new study suggests that aggressive policing likely has an adverse effect on the mental health of young men -- particularly young men who are black or brown.
The study, released Thursday by the American Journal of Public Health, appears to show higher rates of feelings of stress, anxiety and trauma in young men who experienced multiple or intrusive stop and frisk encounters with police than among young men who had fewer or no such encounters.
"Our findings suggest that proactive policing tactics have the potential to negatively impact the relationship between the community and police, as well as the mental health and well-being of community members," Amanda Geller, a professor at New York University and lead author of the study, said in a statement.
The study surveyed more than 1,200 men between the ages of 18 and 26 in New York during a six-month period straddling 2012 and 2013. "Respondents reported high rates of police contact," the study says. "Although 80% of respondents reported being stopped 10 times or fewer, more than 5% of respondents reported being stopped more than 25 times, and 1% of respondents reported more than 100 stops."
Those who experienced the harshest and most intrusive police stops self-reported higher levels of trauma and stress, the study says, although even those who faced less intense encounters with police also reported symptoms.
"Most of the police encounters our respondents described didn't include an arrest or incarceration, yet they still reported associated mental health symptoms," Geller said in the statement. "This tells us that even the low levels of interaction that many urban residents experience may have consequences."
The following links show COPS/DHS disturbing relationship as they push for a national Stop & Frisk program.
Homeland Security training through community policing:
Community Policing as the Primary Prevention Strategy for Homeland Security at the Local Law Enforcement Level:
Page 12 - Recommendations to DHS on Community Policing:
"DHS should work closely with the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) at the Department of Justice (DOJ) to better incorporate the concept of community-oriented policing into programmatic and policy efforts associated with homeland security preparedness.
Increased resources should be made available (funding, training, technical assistance) to state and local authorities.
Establishing information-driven community-based violent crime reduction capabilities should be considered a preparedness priority by DHS.
Community-oriented policing costs should be included as an allowable expense within DHS grant programs."
Policing After 9/11: Community Policing in an Age of Homeland Security: